Impacts of protected vegetable cultivation on climate change and adaptation strategies for cleaner production – A review


Here we provide a critical and comprehensive review of recent developments in the impact of protected cultivation on climate change and map the factors involved. Some possible ways to reduce greenhouse gas emissions are suggested and some sustainable adaptation strategies are indicated. We expand our survey of the existing research to the entire production system, including greenhouse structure, energy, electricity, growing media, and fertilizers. Technical and conceptual innovations are discussed, along with structural solutions, such as screenhouses. We believe that this work will contribute to facilitating reductions in direct and indirect emissions from the greenhouse gas inventory while simultaneously reducing the waste from protected cultivation systems. Moreover, we believe that this review will shed new light on some of these approaches and suggest new ways for cleaner production in controlled-environment systems. The transition to sustainable protected cultivation systems needs to be economically viable – innovative adaptations are required. We recommend adaptations such as maximum insulation, smart climate control, sustainable energy sources such as biogas, photovoltaics and geothermal energy, as well as new concepts for crop production to reduce the impact of protected cultivation on climate change.

Journal of Cleaner Production, (225),